Individuals are frequently uncovered to diverse microbes, which can have optimistic and adverse health and fitness results. Considerable exposure the these microorganisms takes place indoors, with the greatest bacterial colonization documented in the kitchen. To date, no examine has in contrast microbial communities in homes throughout countries, which is essential to decide if a main kitchen area microbiota exists.

Examine: Mapping the Kitchen area Microbiota in Five European Countries Reveals a Established of Core Germs across Countries, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleansing Utensils. Image Credit: Africa Studio /

About the research

A latest examine released in the journal Utilized and Environmental Microbiology mapped the microbiota on kitchen area surfaces and cleaning utensils to determine any associations in between microbiota, house objects, and state.

Kitchen surface area and cleaning utensil samples ended up collected from 74 households in Hungary, France, Portugal, Romania, and Norway. Floor samples from unique kitchen objects have been attained ahead of evening meal planning.

Samples from cleansing sponges and cloths had been attained following foods preparation and subsequently subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Alpha range was analyzed working with the Shannon index, observed options, and Faith’s phylogenetic variety.

Linear mixed versions were made use of to exam Alpha diversity differences across sample sorts and countries. Beta variety examination was also performed by means of unweighted and weighted UniFrac, Jaccard, and Bray-Curtis. Univariate and multivariate analyses examined variances between sample counties and types.

Analyze results

A total of 305 samples were analyzed and 3,487 sub-operational taxonomic units (sOTUs) ended up detected from about 18.8 million sequences. An average of 61,960 sequences ended up obtained for each and every sample, with 5,420 sequences isoalted for just about every sOTU.

The kitchen microbiota comprised users from 793 genera from 297 people. The most recurrent sequences were being from the Proteobacteria phylum, followed by Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteria phyla.

The most abundant genera and households were being Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Yersiniaceae. Forty-five sOTUs were determined in the Acinetobacter genus, with A. johnsonii being the most repeated Acinetobacter species.

Sixty-4 sOTUs represented the Pseudomonas genus. Nineteen sOTUs ended up discovered within the Enterobacteriaceae family members.

There had been 41, 12, 67, and 16 sOTUs in the Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Kocuria genera, respectively. Sixteen samples had been favourable for Listeria, a single examined constructive for Campylobacter, and none had Salmonella.

Notably, sOTUs connected to S. enterica and Shigella/Escherichia have been detected in samples from all 5 countries, whilst C. jejuni was current in Romanian, French, and Portuguese samples. Most of these pathogens ended up reasonably much less abundant.

Alpha diversity drastically differed concerning sample sorts and across international locations. For illustration, samples from Portugal had fewer noticed sOTUs than individuals from Norway and France, whilst samples from Norway, Hungary, and France had identical stages of Alpha diversity.

Equivalent results ended up noticed with Faith’s phylogenetic diversity. Region dissimilarities ended up much less evident when analyses were limited to samples from cleaning utensils but remained major when only floor samples ended up regarded as.

Handles had the maximum Alpha variety centered on observed attributes, whilst sponges experienced the least expensive. Principal element evaluation (PCA) showed the inclination for microbiota clustering by sample variety and country. Despite the fact that the microbiota in cleaning cloths and sponges have been comparable, their similarity was bigger throughout nations around the world than among cloths and sponges.

Surface area samples ended up clustered by region, so implying that the microbiota was much more comparable in floor samples within a nation than a particular area sample across countries. However, some exceptions to this finding were noticed. For case in point, the microbiota on French handles was a lot more similar to that on Hungarian handles than in other French floor samples.

Some germs in sponges and cloths with drastically different relative abundances had been noticed among international locations as as opposed to area samples. Sink samples had the greatest microorganisms with noticeably various relative abundance among international locations.

8 genera/households were being determined as the main microbiota, of which integrated Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enhydrobacter, and Chryseobacterium. Of these, Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, and Acinetobacter were the only taxa present in all samples, which also exhibited the highest mean relative abundances.

Enhydrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae had been discovered as the core sOTUs. The core microbiota assorted in relative abundance between sample types and countries. Amongst the main microbiota, the relative abundances of Psychrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, and Enhydrobacter noticeably differed between countries.

There were being sizeable discrepancies in Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus involving sample kinds, with the optimum abundances in humid samples obtained from sinks, cloths, and sponges, as well as handles, respectively. Similarly, Bacillus exhibited significant variations between sample styles, with the cheapest abundance present in humid samples.


Irrespective of the appreciable dissimilarities in kitchen area requirements, nutritional behavior, and foods planning tactics, a core microbiota of the kitchen comprising 8 taxa at the genus/loved ones amount was recognized, with three core microbes noticed at the sOTU degree.

In general, the review results grow the know-how base of the kitchen area microbiota. Future scientific tests should really correlate these outcomes with food basic safety behaviors and their effect on human overall health.

Journal reference:

  • Moen, B., Langsrud, S., Berget, I., et al. (2023). Mapping the Kitchen Microbiota in Five European International locations Reveals a Established of Core Germs throughout Countries, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleaning Utensils. Used Environmental Microbiology. doi:10.1128/aem.00267-23